PrimatesId code: amd077
(Eng) Patas monkey
(Fre) Singe rouge ou patas
Formerly included in Cercopithecus, the patas was placed in a distinct genus by Thorington & Groves (1970), Szalay & Delson (1979) and Wilson & Reeder (1993). Up to four races have been named (Kingdon, 1997).
IUCN threat category
The only complete study on the patas monkey is the one by Chism & Rowell (1988), who investigated the main aspects of the ecology of this species in a wooded grassland area of Kenya (Laikipia District). The study includes a detailed description of its habitat preferences. The speciesí ecology was also investigated in northern Cameroon (Struhsaker, 1979). Several comparative studies of their behaviour have been conducted, with particular attention to the interspecific relationships and niche separation with other primates (Bourlière, 1985; Chalmers, 1973; Eisenberg et al., 1979; Struhsaker, 1979). General information on its distribution is found in Lernould (1988), while Booth (1979) discusses its presence in Ghana. Data on its occurrence are also available for Ethiopia and Eritrea (Yalden et al., 1996); some information on the species presence and notes on its ecology in the Kwiambana Game Reserve (Nigeria) are found in Ajayi et al. (1981). General information on the speciesí ecology is found in Kingdon (1997) and Stuart & Stuart (1997). An updated report on its status and distribution is found in Oates (1996); the author also gives some information on the speciesí ecology.
Known extent of occurrence
The distribution of this monkey coincides broadly with the sub-Saharan savannas from Senegal to west Ethiopia, and southwards to Kenya and north Tanzania (Lernould, 1988; Wilson & Reeder, 1993). As mapped in Fig. 2.3.25.a, which was obtained from Gautier-Hion et al. (1988), its eastern limit is the Ethiopian plateau (Yalden et al., 1977), while the northern and southern boundaries are represented by the Sahara Desert and the equatorial forest block, respectively (Chism & Rowell, 1988). The first source map was checked with the information found in Kingdon (1997), Oates (1996) and Lernould (1988) to provide a reliable final distribution range.
Categorical-discrete (CD) distribution model
This species strongly prefers open Acacia woodland, while it rarely enters bushland and treeless areas (Chism & Rowell, 1988; Yalden et al., 1977; Kingdon, 1997).
Based on these environmental preferences, the following scores were assigned (Fig. 2.3.25.b) (Tab. 2.3.25.a):
Tab 2.3.25.a: Cumulative size (km2) of areas pertaining to each environmental suitability class within the Extent of Occurrence.
Tab 2.3.25.b: Area of Occupancy fragmentation indexes.
Probabilistic-continuous (PC) distribution model
The output of the probabilistic-continuous (PC) distribution model is shown in Fig. 2.3.25.c.
Tab 2.3.25.c: Categorical-discrete (CD) distribution model validation parameters.
Comments and conservation issues
The known EO of this species covers a large area across Africa and the Sahel region. From both models draw the EO to include areas that do not seem to be very suitable along the northern and southern limits of the EO. The overall suitability is generally good, as the total AO accounts for more than 80% of the EO. Though the information on the ecology of the species is not too abundant, the accordance of the CD model with field work data appears good, with an Index of Accordance of 62.35%. Fragmentation is however high (NP) and, most important, it appears that the suitable areas are strongly interspersed with less suitable and unsuitable ones (the AWMSI is high for all classes), reflecting the high human utilisation across the EO. About 6% of the total AO is included in existing protected areas.
Tab 2.3.25.d: Percent of environmental suitability classes within EO (as obtained from the categorical-discrete distribution model) inside and outside the protected areas.
Ajayi S.S., Afolayan T., Milligan K. (1981). A survey of wildlife in Kwiambana Game Reserve, Nigeria. Afr. J. Ecol.: 19, 295-298.
Booth A.H. (1979). The distribution of primates in the Gold Coast. In: Sussman R.W. (Ed.). Primate Ecology. Problem-oriented field studies. Wiley, Chichester & New York: chap. 7: 139-154.
Bourlière F. (1985). Primate communities: their structure and role in tropical ecosystems. Int J. Primatol.: 6, 1-26.
Chalmers N.R. (1973). Differences in behavior between some arboreal and terrestrial species of African monkeys. In: Michael R.P., Crook J.H. (Eds). Comparative Ecology and Behaviour of Primates. Proceedings of a Conference held at the Zoological Society. London, November 1971. Academic Press, London and New York: pp 69-100.
Chism J., Rowell T.E. (1988). The natural history of patas monkeys. In: Gautier-Hion A., Bourlière F., Gautier J., Kingdon J.(Eds). A Primate Radiation: Evolutionary Biology of the African Guenons. Cambridge University Press, New York: pp 412-438.
Eisenberg J.F., Muckenhirn N., Rudran R. (1979). The relations between ecology and social structure in primates. [reprinted from Science (1972), 176: 863-874]. In: Sussman R.W. (Ed.). Primate Ecology. Problem-oriented field studies. Wiley, Chichester & New York. chap. 23: 455-484.
Gautier-Hion A., Bourlière F., Gautier J., Kingdon J. (Eds) (1988). A Primate Radiation: Evolutionary Biology of the African Guenons. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Kingdon J. (1997). The Kingdon field guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, London and New York: Natural World.
Lernould J. (1988). Classification and geographical distribution of guenons: a review. In: Gautier-Hion A., Bourlière F., Gautier J., Kingdon J. (Eds). A Primate Radiation: Evolutionary Biology of the African Guenons. Cambridge University Press, New York: pp 54-78.
Oates J.F. (1996). African Primates Status Survey and Conservation Action plan. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group.
Struhsaker T.T. (1979). Correlates of ecology and social organisation among African cercopithecines. In: Sussman R.W. (Ed.). Primate Ecology. Problem-oriented field studies. Wiley, Chichester & New York: chap. 20: 391-404.
Thorington R.W.Jr., Groves C.P. (1970). An annotated classification of the Cercopithecidae. In: Napier J.R., Napier P.H. (Eds). Old World Monkeys. Evolution, Systematics and Behavior. Academic Press, London and New York: 629-647 pp.
Stuart C., Stuart T. (1997). Field guide to the larger mammals of Africa. Struik Publishers.
Szalay F.S., Delson E. (1979). Evolutionary history of the primates. Academic Press, New York.
Wilson D.E., Reeder D.M. (Eds) (1993). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.
Yalden D.W., Largen M.J., Kock D. (1977). Catalogue of the mammals of Ethiopia 3. Primates. Monitore Zoologico Italiano: suppl. IX, 1-52.
Yalden D.W., Largen M.J., Kock D., Hillman J.C. (1996). Catalogue of the mammals of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 7. Revised checklist, zoogeography and conservation. Tropical Zoology: 9, 73-164.